For simple, low-powered loads such as a neon lamp or a LED, a fixed resistor is commonly used.
Because the resistance of the ballast resistor is large it determines the current in the circuit, even in the face of negative resistance introduced by the neon lamp.
BALLAST FIXED RESISTOR
Ballast was also a component used in early model automobiles engine that lowered the supply voltage to the ignition system after the engine had been started. Starting the engine requires a significant amount of electrical current from the battery, resulting in an equally significant voltage drop. To allow the engine to start, the ignition system was designed to operate on this lower voltage. But once the vehicle was started and the starter disengaged, the normal operating voltage was too high for the ignition system. To avoid this problem, a ballast resistor was inserted in series with the ignition system, resulting in two different operating voltages for the starting and ignition systems.
Occasionally, this ballast resistor would fail and the classic symptom of this failure was that the engine ran while being cranked (while the resistor was bypassed) but stalled immediately when cranking ceased (and the resistor was reconnected in the circuit via the ignition switch). Modern electronic ignition systems (those used since the 1980s or late '70s) do not require a ballast resistor as they are flexible enough to operate on the lower cranking voltage or the normal operating voltage.
Another common use of a ballast resistor in the automotive industry is adjusting the ventilation fan speed. The ballast is a fixed resistor with usually two centre taps, and the fan speed selector switch is used to bypass portions of the ballast: all of them for full speed, and none for the low speed setting. A very common failure occurs when the fan is being constantly run at the next-to-full speed setting (usually 3 out of 4). This will cause a very short piece of resistor coil to be operated with a relatively high current (up to 10 A), eventually burning it out. This will render the fan unable to run at the reduced speed settings.
In some consumer electronic equipment, notably in television sets in the era of valves (vacuum tubes), but also in some low-cost record players, the vacuum tube heaters were connected in series. Since the voltage drop across all the heaters in series was usually less than the full mains voltage, it was necessary to provide a ballast to drop the excess voltage. A resistor was often used for this purpose, as it was cheap and worked with both AC and DC.